Thursday, August 27, 2020

Effects of the Columbian Exchange

The Columbian Exchange affected the immense spread of plants, creatures, culture, human populaces, and numerous irresistible and infectious sicknesses through exchange both North America and Western Europe. The Columbian Exchange started in 1492, when Christopher Columbus set sail on his journey to the Americas. In spite of the fact that it made a tremendous increment in food flexibly and profitability, and human populace, it additionally harmed the biological security of numerous enormous regions. In North America, the Columbian Exchange had a positive impact just as negative.North America got many tamed creatures from the Old World, including ponies, dairy cattle, pigs, sheep, and fowl. Despite the fact that the creatures gave significant food, attire, and vitality sources, they caused blended feelings in the Indians in light of the fact that the creatures seriously harmed significant croplands. Not exclusively did North America get creatures, however new plants as well; America go t plants, for example, dark pepper, grain, wheat, rice, lettuce, sugarcane, and rhubarb. They got residential plants, creatures and different products from Africa, Asia and India as well.The Old World likewise presented North America to various irresistible and infectious ailments: including bubonic plague, chicken pox, cholera, flu, uncleanliness, intestinal sickness, measles, red fever, smallpox, typhoid, typhus, yellow fever, and yaws. Since the indigenous people groups had no resistance to these infections, they negatively affected the Indian populace, causing a noteworthy segment decay. The indigenous individuals additionally experienced the fierceness and the seizure of farmland from the Europeans.Aside from the negative, the Columbian Exchange permitted North America to develop and form into a useful and compelling human progress. Through the Columbian Exchange, Western Europe had the chance to grow their exchange courses over the Atlantic bowl, connecting with Asian and Indi an markets. Furthermore, Columbus’ journey to the New World (America) motivated numerous Europeans to relocate there. Transoceanic movement to the Americas by the Western Europeans, gave Europe substantially more force in numerous spots than they had beforehand had.As the Indian populace declined because of ailment and such, Europeans kept on filling the Americas. Like North America, Western Europe got many tamed plants as a result of the Columbian Exchange, for example, potato, corn, cotton, vanilla, and tobacco. In Ireland explicitly, potatoes turned into a staple nourishment for society. Harvests, for example, sugarcane and tobacco were sought after right now in Western Europe; they were â€Å"cash crops† which progressively improved agrarian flourishing and economy.An improving economy lead to developing urban communities; this is completely ascribed to the Columbian Exchange. The Columbian Exchange affected the tremendous spread of plants, creatures, culture, huma n populaces, and numerous irresistible and infectious ailments through exchange both North America and Western Europe. The impacts of the Columbian Exchange on Western Europe vary from that of North America from multiple points of view; yet, there are additionally numerous likenesses. It expanded flourishing in the two locales.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

A Story From America Essay Research Paper free essay sample

A Story From America Essay, Research Paper A Story From America August fourteenth 1960, I was working delinquently at the workplace that dull. It resembled one of those darks that gives you shudder, when you consider them. The virus air was titillating me in the cervix, when it simple blowed into the room from the loosened window. The obvious radiations from the road made me so irritated that I hartly could occur and peruse the reports I was searching for. At last I discovered them, they were disguising in my own file of examples associated with killing. My going to out of nowhere breaks when my secretary, a juvenile capable grown-up female with numerous abnormal achievements, moves toward the workplace. She ever dealings, normaly I just claim to tune in, yet this clasp I could encounter something was extraordinary. She had an idea, conceivably she had discovered a clue, in the occurrence which had gone on my nervousnesss for the last three hebdomads. Cooper! , she figures out how to explain before she tosses a few records around my work area. Cause you to recover, when we were look intoing Mrs Alpher s level? . Indeed, what's going on here? I state, looking to occur out what s on her head. Until now we shelter t discovered anybody that perchance could hold gone into Mrs Alpher s level, without anybody recognizing the person in question. You ve got a point at that place, I reacted, what was her responsibility? That somewhat blue dress without a doubt gave her okay bends, truly I coundn t get her of my head the majority of the clasp. Indeed, her level lies at the intersection of Main Street and Baker Street, there re three Windowss, one on Baker St. furthermore, one Main St. in addition one in the middle. That dim Mrs Alpher was shot, it was truly warm, and in the event that she so had a window detached. An individual could hold shot her in hers condo, from his or hers ain window, she looked fulfilled subsequent to finishing her cr eation. So what you re trying to state, is that we could happen the killing in one of the pads inverse Mrs Alpher s Windowss. The idea wasn t terrible at all I thoungt, she opened the new wardrobe to secure a few documents. Alright. we ll head out over to her level right off. It was somewhat surprising to come in the level, it had an irregular development, yet alongside it had a specific intrigue with it s three Windowss in the terminal of the existence room. I tryed to picture what had been going on that flushing Mrs Alpher was shot. First she had come place after a supper with her darling, to relax up herself she begins to modify her attire. At that point she opens the Windowss in view of the warmth, the killing is sitting in his or hers window outline, hanging tight for Mrs Alpher to remain in the privilege topographic point where the individual in question can discharge the firearm. No 1 will distinguish the shooting, as a result of uproarious commotion the trafic usualy makes. The pieces in the long run bagan to suit, presently there was simply one thing left to make, question those with Windowss opposide Mrs Alpher s level. Luckily there were just three existent suspects, Mr Appleton, Mrs Sherly and Mr Edwoods, my secretary and I went out to happen the killing. Mr Appleton 33 mature ages old, lives opposide Mrs Alpher s level on Baker Street. Has a valid statement of position to the level, and have consent to move a weapon. He was completely place watching broadcasting the dim of the killing. Mrs Sherly 25 mature ages old, lives opposide Mrs Alpher s level on Main Street. Do non hold a valid statement of position, yet have been rapacious of Mrs Alpher, in view of her new darling ( blending to other dear companions ) . She was place, however was kiping at the clasp of the killing. Mr Edwoods 34 mature ages old, lives nextdoor to Mrs Sherly. Has a valid statement of position to each of the three Windowss, yet wasn t place at the clasp of the brutal demise. In the wake of hearing each of the three explanations, I plunked down trying to occur out who had the best ground for slaughtering Mrs Alpher. Mr Appleton was apparently the headsuspect, on the grounds that he had consent to move a weapon. Be that as it may, all slayings didn T ever have authorization to move firearms, so Mrs Sherly with her green-looked at beast was other than a headsuspect. Mr Edwoods whom said he wasn t place at the clasp of the savage demise, has the best purpose of position to the level, other than he could hold make it, in the event that he was lieing. Out of nowhere the telephone begins ringing, I get the getting framework believing something incredible had occurred. It s the midtown policedepartment, Agent Cooper? One of your suspects was admitted the killing of Mrs Alpher. I went down to the constabulary segment directly off, however who would it be able to be? Incredibly, I saw Mr Edwoods remaining at the counter. He looked confused, other than he couldn t look me in the oculus. Mr Edwoods? , I couldn t complete what I was going to state, when he cryed out It was me, yes I let it out, it was me who slaughtered that brainsick grown-up female. Yet, why Mr Edwoods? For what reason did you murder a grown-up female you scarcely knew? , I couldn t stan her, she was a bitch! he said with solid faith in his voice. Well Mr Edwoods, why wear T you mention to me what had occurred, OK. I ll better do that. I recline in my seat, and began tuning in. For a long clasp I had been following Mr Alpher, I imagined each dull of her thus she discovers this sweetheart. He stoped representing a moment, so I asked him with no thought But for what reason didn T you at any rate converse with her? I wasn t the kind of grown-up male she needed, he turned upward with cryings in his eyes. The solitary way out I could happen was to dispose of the sweetheart, however at the clasp I was venturing out to murder, I couldn t see the contrast among her and him. I didn t intend to murder Mr Alpher, it was a mistake, a horrendous blunder. In any case, I m the one by what method will be rebuffed, and I ve got nil more to state. His face was all white, so I requested that he relax. Few proceedingss change a cop came to move up Mr Edwoods, I saw him being removed with handlocks on his dorsum. I required a leftover portion, and the solitary topographic point I knew where I could rest, was at the Johnsons Hotel. Perhaps I should name my secretary? No, she definitely realized what had occurred. I made the way for the lodging vestibule, two grown-up females were plunking down in the white seats, perhaps pausing? Or then again only extricate uping themselves. One of them, was perusing a book. She other than had a similar somewhat blue gown as my secretary, no another mistake, the dress wasn T rather the equivalent. Be that as it may, in any case, I wasn t here to take a gander at grown-up females, however to relax up myself. It was non truly warm in the inn waiting room, so I keept my jacket on. There were no to see behind the counter, yet I showed restraint. Out of nowhere a grown-up male runs into the waiting room, he stops infront of on of the women. At the point when he takes his jacket off his arm, I can see he holds a scattergun in his manus. I m incapacitated for a coup le of moments, so he shoot the scattergun, and comes up short on the secondary passage. Simply when I m going to rest, something ever occurs. I begin running adjust him.

Friday, August 21, 2020

Blog Archive Professor Profiles Kristin Forbes, MIT Sloan School of Management

Blog Archive Professor Profiles Kristin Forbes, MIT Sloan School of Management Many MBA applicants feel that they are purchasing a brand, but the educational experience itself is what is crucial to your future, and no one will affect your education more than your professors. Each Wednesday, we profile a standout professor as identified by students. Today, we profile Kristin Forbes  from the MIT Sloan School of Management. Kristin Forbes (“Applied Macro and International Economics” and “Global Economic Challenges and Opportunities”) was chosen by students to receive the Teacher of the Year award in 2009 (as she also was in 2001); she also received the Excellence in Teaching award in 2010, 2007 and 2006 and the Jamieson Prize for History of Excellence in Teaching at MIT in 2008. Forbes rotates her career between academia and the government, which, according to those we interviewed, gives her “endless credibility” in students’ eyes. Other comments students made to mbaMission about Forbes included “[she has] high levels of enthusiasm and knowledge,” “she makes every class an interesting class” and “[she] made one of my not-so favorite topics extremely interesting and rewarding.” Forbes also garners praise for how rigorous her classes are and her ability to make class discussions inspiring. Claimed one second-year student in particular, “Whenever I walked out [of her class], all I could say was, ‘Wow, this was awesome.’” For more information about the MIT Sloan School of Management and 15 other top-ranked MBA schools, check out the  mbaMission Insider’s Guides. Share ThisTweet Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Sloan) Professor Profiles Blog Archive Professor Profiles Kristin Forbes, MIT Sloan School of Management Many MBA applicants feel that they are purchasing a brand, but the educational experience itself is crucial to your future, and no one will affect your education more than your professors. Each Wednesday, we profile a standout professor as identified by students. Today, we profile Kristin Forbes from the MIT Sloan School of Management. Kristin Forbes (“Applied Macro and International Economics,” “Management and Policy in the International Economy”) was chosen by students to receive the Teacher of the Year award in 20092010 (as she also did in 2001) and balances her career between academia and the government, which, according to those we interviewed, gives her “endless credibility” in students’ eyes. Other student comments on Forbes included “high levels of enthusiasm and knowledge,” “she makes every class an interesting class” and “made one of my not-so favorite topics extremely interesting and rewarding.” Forbes also garners praise for how rigorous her classes are and her ability to make class discussions inspiring. Claimed one second-year student in particular, “Whenever I walked out [of her class], all I could say was, ‘Wow, this was awesome.’” For more information about the MIT Sloan School of Management and 13 other top-ranked MBA schools, check out the mbaMission Insider’s Guides. Share ThisTweet Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Sloan) Professor Profiles

Monday, May 25, 2020

Walden By Henry David Thoreau - 843 Words

Everyone sees the world through their own eyes. Not two people can see something in the exact same way or interpret it the same way. They can each have their own opinion about the subject. In â€Å"Walden† by Henry David Thoreau, he has a very individualistic view on nature. In â€Å"Walden†, Thoreau goes out into the woods to try and live his life deliberately. Schneider states, â€Å" In 1845, he received permission from Emerson to use a piece of land that Emerson owned on the shore of Walden Pond.† He stays there for two years trying to learn what it means to live. After he returns home, he publishes his journals, which convey his radical ideas, and they immediately become a bestselling read. In â€Å"Walden† by Henry David Thoreau, there are some key similarities and differences between his view of nature and the view of a contemporary person. One key similarity between Henry David Thoreau in his text â€Å"Walden† and a contemporary person is that both of them have something to learn from nature. From the day humans are born they never stop learning. For example, they are like a constant sponge that just absorbs information from their surroundings. â€Å"While at Walden, Thoreau did an incredible amount of reading and writing, yet he also spent much time sauntering in nature.† says Woodlief. One place on Earth where there is an abundance of information for humans to absorb is nature. Thoreau states on page 383, â€Å"To front only the essential facts of life, and see if I could not learnShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of Walden By Henry David Thoreau997 Words   |  4 PagesWalden, a series of 18 essays by Henry David Thoreau published in 1854, is a record of Thoreau’s experiment in simple living on the northern shore of Walden Pond, Massachusetts. Industrial progress is a theme that Thoreau experienc es while at Walden Pond. Even though Thoreau makes some elaborate claims as to why industrial progress is destructive, the exact opposite is true; as such advancement does much to benefit the relationships, economy and safety of any society. Thoreau’s overall philosophyRead MoreAnalysis Of Walden By Henry David Thoreau1088 Words   |  5 PagesThe excerpt Walden, by Henry David Thoreau, is a piece that explores the purpose of life, especially if it isn t lived to the fullest. Thoreau starts by sharing the meaning and value of life. His idea of his personal achievement was to live life and die with a sense of peace and knowledge that he did not waste a single moment. He wanted to live life while being true to himself regardless of whether he would find life to be cruel or a wonderful place, and this was a risk he was willing to take. InRead MoreWalden by Henry David Thoreau579 Words   |  2 Pagesreflection, Walden, Thoreau states â€Å"be it life or death, we crave only reality.† The excerpt from pages 49 to 50 focuses on the quest for this elusive truth. Serving both as a call to action as well as an instructional guide, this passage takes readers through a cleansing of all the superfluities of life. He laments how life has corrupted the natural state of purity he was born with, but with intellect as his primary tool, he has tried to truly find himself. In this passage, Thoreau instructs hisRead MoreAnalysis Of Henry David Thoreau s Walden 1183 Words   |  5 PagesHenry David Thoreau will go down in history as one of the greatest influential writer’s and philosophers in American history. Not only was he a smart and intelligent man, but he had such wisdom and determination when he looked at every aspect of life. Thoreau was just an ordinary individual from Concord, which helped the readers relate to him on a more personal level when they read his work. In Thoreau’s Walden, he wanted the reader to understand that you should live life more simple, connect withRead MoreCritical Analysis Of Walden By Henry David Thoreau1300 Words   |  6 PagesCritical Analysis of â€Å"Walden† The autobiography â€Å"Walden† by Henry David Thoreau is a first-person narrative explaining what Thoreau personally experienced from his experiment after two years of living at Walden Pond, encompassed by nature. Thoreau isolates himself from society and martial earnings to gain a higher understanding of what it means to have freedom as an individual. He simplifies his life to get closer to nature to learn more about himself and society. If we focus too much on obtainingRead MoreAnalysis Of Henry David Thoreau s Walden861 Words   |  4 Pagesto die tomorrow would you live differently? Henry David Thoreau in an excerpt of his book Walden addresses complex philosophical ideas including death, simplifying everyday life and religion using: carefully chosen, meditative word choice, comparisons and other philosophies and stories intended for the audience of Concord during the 1800’s. Death is uncertain; no one survives to tell of the other side, yet it perpetuates life into existence. Thoreau compares living life to sculpting and that toRead MoreNature Ralph Walden Emerson and Henry David Thoreau Walden1693 Words   |  7 PagesSELDA PUR 2009105153 ‘NATURE’ AND ‘WALDEN’ ‘Nature’ and ‘Walden’ are two art works basically giving the similar messages to the readers. Their writers are different but one of the things which make these works similar is Henry David Thoreau is affected by Ralph Waldo Emerson’s works and ideas very much. Secondly, their essays are both inspired from transcendentalism movement. Finally, their theme are both the same, they deal with mainly the idea of ‘nature’. While comparing these two essays, it isRead MoreAn Example Of Romanticism In Walden, By Henry David Thoreau740 Words   |  3 PagesWithin the passage of Walden, by Henry David Thoreau, it demonstrates multiple examples of Romanticism. The concepts being mentioned are ideas about going transcending ordinary societal beliefs, following ones’ intuition, and creating a new moral law. A main reason why Walden is a representative of Romanticism is because it contains examples of mystery within nature. Thoreau mentions, â€Å"I went to the woods because I wished to live deliberately, to front only the essential facts of life, and seeRead MoreWalden by Henry David Thoreau Essay681 Words   |  3 Pagesthe I, or first person, is omitted; in this it will be retained; that, in respect to egotism†¦Ã¢â‚¬  | 1 | Withdrawal from labor and competition:â€Å"I lived alone, in the woods, a mile from my neighbor, in a house which I had built myself, on the shore of Walden Pond, in Concord.† | 1 | Pursuit of a critical, solitary lifestyle: â€Å"Some have asked me what I got to eat; if I did not feel lonesome; if I was not afraid; and the like.† | 1 | Consciousness of the disproportion between a person’s facilities andRead MoreA Simple Life Philosophy In Walden By David Henry Thoreau996 Words   |  4 PagesWalden author, David Henry Thoreau, has a simple life philosophy and, quite ironically, it is to live a simple life. Thoreau displays his philosophical ideas in his memoir, which he is most known for, Walden. Reading his memoir, we are exposed to his ideas on how one must regard life which is, rather than getting what one wants, but, to disregard what is irrelevant in our lives and to move forward towards our aspirations. Personally, I share similar views due to my constant termination of anything

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Learn About the End of the French Revolution

Almost all historians agree that the French Revolution, that great maelstrom of ideas, politics, and violence, started in 1789 when a gathering of the Estates General turned into a dissolving of the social order and the creation of a new representative body. What they don’t agree on is when the revolution came to an end. While you can find the occasional reference to France still being in the revolutionary era now, most commentators see a difference between the revolution and the imperial rule of Napoleon Bonaparte and the age of wars that bear his name. Which event marks the end of the French Revolution? Take your pick. 1795: The Directory In 1795, with rule by The Terror over, the National Convention designed a new system for governing France. This involved two councils and a ruling body of five directors, known as the Directory. In October 1795, Parisians angry at the state of France, including the idea of the Directory, gathered and marched in protest, but they were repelled by troops guarding strategic areas. This failure was the last time the citizens of Paris appeared able to take charge of the revolution as they had so powerfully done before. It is considered a turning point in the revolution; indeed, some consider it the end. Soon after this, the Directory staged a coup to remove royalists, and their rule for the next four years would be marked by constant vote rigging to stay in power, an action at odds with the dreams of the original revolutionaries. The Directory certainly marked the death of many revolutionary ideals. 1799: The Consulate The military had taken a large role in the changes wrought by the French Revolution before 1799 but never had a general use the army to force change. The Coup of Brumaire, which took place in the later months of 1799, was organized by director and author Sieyà ©s, who decided that the undefeated and feted General Bonaparte would be a tame figure who could use the army to seize power. The coup didn’t run smoothly, but no blood was shed beyond Napoleon’s cheek, and by December 1799 a new government was created. This would be run by three consuls: Napoleon, Sieyà ©s (who had originally wanted Napoleon to be a figurehead and have no power), and a third man called Ducos. The Consulate may be considered the event that marked the end of the French Revolution because it was, technically, a military coup rather than a movement pushed along by the however theoretical will of the people, unlike the earlier revolution. 1802: Napoleon Consul for Life Although power was vested in three consuls, Napoleon soon began to take charge. He won further battles, instituted reforms, started drafting a new series of laws, and raised his influence and profile. In 1802, Sieyà ©s began to criticize the man he had hoped to use as a puppet. The other governmental bodies began to refuse to pass Napoleon’s laws, so he bloodlessly purged them and leveraged his popularity into having himself declared consul for life. This event is sometimes believed to be the end of the revolution because his new position was almost monarchical in its dimensions and certainly represented a break with the careful checks, balances, and elected positions desired by earlier reformers. 1804: Napoleon Becomes Emperor Fresh off more propaganda victories and with his popularity nearly at its zenith, Napoleon Bonaparte crowned himself emperor of France. The French Republic was over and the French empire had begun. This is perhaps the most obvious date to use as the end of the revolution, for although Napoleon had been building his power since the Consulate. France was transformed into a new form of nation and government, one considered almost opposite to the hopes of many revolutionaries. This wasnt simply pure megalomania by Napoleon because he had to work hard to reconcile the conflicting forces of the revolution and establish a degree of peace. He had to get old monarchists working with revolutionaries and try to get everyone working together under him. In many respects he was successful, knowing how to bribe and coerce to unify much of France, and being surprisingly forgiving. Of course, this was partly based on the glory of conquest. It is possible to claim that the revolution came to an end gradually over the Napoleonic era, rather than any single power-grabbing event or date, but this frustrates people who like crisp answers. 1815: The End of the Napoleonic Wars It’s unusual, but not impossible, to find books that include the Napoleonic Wars alongside the revolution  and consider the two part of the same arc. Napoleon had risen through opportunities afforded by the revolution. His fall in first 1814 and then 1815 saw the return of the French monarchy, clearly a national return to pre-revolutionary times, even if France could not return to that era. However, the monarchy did not last long, rendering this a difficult endpoint for the revolution, as others followed soon.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Declaration of Independence and Letter from Birmingham...

Thomas Jefferson and Martin Luther King Jr. are two American men who were key leaders during very controversial periods in U.S. history, and they were instrumental in movements that forever changed American society. Although their generations, cultures, backgrounds, and motives were quite different, their cause was relatively the same. It was a cause that stood against injustice, oppression, and sought the freedom of all men. Their beliefs and struggles were evident in their writings. Two of the most famous writings in particular are Declaration of Independence and Letter from Birmingham Jail. Both writings are very effective and successful in reaching out to their intended audience. However, Letter from Birmingham Jail is more†¦show more content†¦King writing this letter from behind bars. He walked the statement that he makes in the letter that says, I have tried to stand between these two forces, saying that we need emulate neither the do-nothingism of the complacen t nor the hatred and despair of the black nationalist. For there is the more excellent way of love and nonviolent protest. I am grateful to God that, through the influence of the Negro church, the way of nonviolence became an integral part of our struggle (530). Although their cause was the same, their tactics and audience differed. Jefferson was able to use his claim of tyranny against the king, and Dr. King was able to use his humble approach and his comparisons to other men and organizations, to gain a worldwide audience in order to advance their causes. For example, Jefferson was able to rally support from the colonists and sympathy from other countries by placing the blame on King George. Jefferson justified his blame of King George by listing the kings many injustices, as well as the attempts that the colonial leaders made to communicate with King George. Using this tactic Jefferson was able to provoke the tyrant to war, prepare the colonists for war, and eventually gain an alliance with the French who helped them win the war. However, the Declaration was only targeted to the audience that would be critical in helping the colonies gain their independence. For instance, the slaves wereShow MoreRelatedAn Analysis of Letter from a Birmingham Jail Essay1090 Words   |  5 Pages Letter from a Birmingham Jail was written by Doctor Martin Luther King Jr. in April of 1963, as he sat, as the title states, in a Birmingham, Alabama jail. King had been jailed for his participation in a peaceful protest of segregation in public places such as lunch counters and public restrooms (Berkley, 2003). While jailed, King read a criticism of the protest by a group of white ministers, who felt such demonstrations â€Å"directed and in part led by outsiders† were â€Å"unwise and untimely†Read Moreï » ¿An Analysis of Letter from a Birmingham Jail1204 Words   |  5 PagesLetter from Birmingham Jail was written by Martin Luther King Jr. As he states in the title, in a Birmingham, Alabama jail. Martin Luther King Jr. was jailed because he participated on a nonviolent protest of segregation in public places such as lunch counters and public restrooms. During his jail time, Martin Luther King Jr. read a criticism about a protest made by a group of whit e ministers, accusing King of being an outsider, of using extreme measures that incite hatred and violence, that hisRead MoreMartin Luther King Jr s Letter Of Birmingham Jail903 Words   |  4 Pagesliberty across the United States. Martin Luther King Jr’s a â€Å"letter of Birmingham Jail,† and Thomas Jefferson in the Declaration of Independence both advocate the claim for freedom. Both of these historical figures make this apparent by arguing for the protest against tradition, a change across unjust laws, although they differ between the kinds of change to be enforced. Martin Luther King Junior’s a letter from a Birmingham Jail was him expressing his motivation for the protest against traditionRead MoreMoral Responsibility1256 Words   |  6 Pagesjustice for all which is also supported by King’s â€Å"Letter from Birmingham Jail,† Jefferson’s â€Å" The Declaration of Independence,† and Lincoln’s â€Å"Second Inaugural Address.† I am in Birmingham because injustice is here, wrote Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., in his Letter from Birmingham Jail (King 416). Eight Alabama clergymen composed a statement urging restraint in the Civil Rights movement and the discontinuance of demonstrations in Birmingham. The clergymen explained that progress could bestRead MoreThe Declaration Of Independence By Martin Luther King Jr. Essay1334 Words   |  6 Pagesrole as a citizen? The Declaration of Independence explains a citizen’s role as, â€Å"Individual rights refer to the liberties of each individual to pursue life and goals without interference from other individuals or the government.† But what happens when the rights given to us are not protected as stated in the Declaration of Independence? The result is dissatisfaction in our communities which leads to people taking a stand. Martin Luther King Jr.’s Letter from Birmingham jail talks about this problemRead MoreA Cry For Justice By Martin Luther King Jr.1581 Words   |  7 PagesA Cry for Justice The â€Å"Letter from Birmingham Jail,† a brilliant compilation of ethos, logos and pathos. Martin Luther King Jr. executed a monumental movement in the United States. Supporting the minority group, and acting as a voice for the people. King firmly believed in what the declaration of independence had to say about the rights of men all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of HappinessRead MoreRhetorical Analysis Of Martin Luther King Jr.976 Words   |  4 Pagesand â€Å"Letter from a Birmingham Jail† Dr. King used the rhetorical devices of anaphora, allusion, and diction to relay his thoughts of what is right, and also as a way to build a common ground with his audience. Though the rhetorical devices are shared between the two speeches, there are also several differences. The main difference between the two speeches is that in â€Å"I have a Dream† Dr. King is vocalizing his own ideas for what could become of the United States of America. In â€Å"Letter from a BirminghamRead MoreEssay on Analysis of Martin Luther Kings 1219 Words   |  5 Pagesinfluential are the best adjectives to explain Letter from Birmingham Jail. Martin Luther King Jrs astuteness is enhanced by the astonishing capability to show the unkind and heartless attitude against black community. Throughout the whole writing to the eight clergymen Jr. never get too far from the clash for fairness in Birmingham. As head of the South Christians Leadership Conferences (SCLC), Martin L. King, Junior., in the year 1963 acknowledged Birmingham, Alabama, as possibly the most carefullyRead MoreAnalysis Of The Declaration Of Independance, Ain t I A Woman, And Letters From Birmingham Jail1153 Words   |  5 Pagesvoice of a culture is through its literature, essays by american authors like The Declaration of Independance, Ain’t I a Woman, and Letters from Birmingham Jail. One important document from America is the Declaration of Independence. The Declaration of Independance was the thirteen colonies officially breaking their ties with Great Britain. On July 4, 1776, it was adopted by Continental Congress. The Declaration of Independance was the foundation for the American government system and despite theRead MoreSimilarities between Martin Luther Kings Letter from Birmingham Jail and Jonathan Swifts A Modest Proposal1358 Words   |  6 Pagescursory analysis of Letter From Birmingham Jail by Martin Luther King, Jr. and A Modest Proposal by Jonathan Swift reveals glaring differences between the two essays. Surprisingly, a side-by-side comparison also yields many similarities between the two works. The most obvious similarity between the two essays is the overarching theme of the subject matter. In both essays, the writers address deeply-entrenched social injustices. For example, in Letter From Birmingham Jail, King, in his highly-impassioned

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Toshibas Case Unethical Accounting Practices and Ethical Dilemma

Question: Discuss about the Toshibas Case of Unethical Accounting Practices and Ethical Dilemma. Answer: Script Role Play Narrator: In this role-play, we are going to address the problem of unethical accounting practices that is being followed by senior, middle and line management in order to meet the wishes or personal goals of their leaders (CEO) rather than the requirement of the business. in the automotive manufacturing company Toshiba. The protagonist of this case is the accounting director, A. Before joining the company, A has been regarded as ethical person and successful professional. Shorting after joining the company, he identified the Toshibas corporate culture that does not allow anyone to go against the will of their seniors and the unprofessional accounting practices that involve overstating the operating profits. As the company is moving to a new financial year, A has been assigned the task of preparing a financial report. After preparing and sending the finalized financial report to B, the CEO of the company, for approval, A learned that the leaders are not happy with the report as they need it to overstate the operating profits in order to attract investors and build preferable company outlook in front of its stakeholders. A also came to know through the internal surveys and from other employees that there is no choice but to follow the instructions of seniors. These learning about the corporate culture and inappropriate accounting practices and the internal convictions of A and moral and ethical values have presented an ethical dilemma for A and he is unable to find the right path to follow as there are many factors or stakeholders who would be affected by the decision taken by A. There are several questions that A is seeking answer to and is questioning his conscience to find out the best way out if the situation. Following are the excerpts that the A had with his conscience in the process of getting the right path to follow. Conscience The accounting practice of deliberately inflating the operating profits to satisfy the hidden agenda of seniors is not appropriate, as it is not beneficial for the organization in the end. Is it not important to follow International Accounting Standards (IAS) and maintain transparency in financial reporting? A: But that should not be my concern as the I my job is only to serve the company and the employers rather than investing time in matters that are beyond the purview of current job profile. In addition, the corporate culture of the company does not allow to question the orders of seniors and it cannot be changed overnight. The current financial reporting systems is in practice in the organization for a long time and is devised by the superiors and they must be fully aware of the consequences of their actions. Conscience: You are the accounting director of the company and it is your responsibility to take charge of the activities of the business concerning accounting and financial activities. A: Since I am a newly appointed accounting director, it is important to get accustomed with the new organizational culture, as every employee in the organization is aware of the current practices. In addition, the previous accounting director lost his job as he refused to fulfill the requirements of his superiors. For me it is more important to save my job and create a favorable impression in front of the superiors. Further, the current opportunity is huge and it would be more crucial for my personal career development. Conscience: It is not about your personal goals or career development opportunities but about the various stakeholders that are affected by the misrepresentation of financial data and over stating of operating profits. For instance, the shareholders who are investing in the company have a legitimate right to know about the actual condition of the business to make a decision about their investments. A: I truly understand the importance of transparency in the financial reporting as it enables the various stakeholders to have better assessment of the business and take pride in their association with the business. However, if the current mal practices of the company come to the surface in the public domain it can have serious ramification for the business and various stakeholders. For instance, the self-respect and pride of the current employees would be violated and it is possible that the government would take legal action against the companys management and the company may be locked down that would result in employees losing their jobs and this not the ideal scenario. In addition, the customer loyalty towards the brand and goodwill of the company in the market would be severely damaged. Further, Toshiba is a well reputed business organization and contributes positively in the development of the society and a source of revenue generation for the business, therefore, if the curren t unethical practices comes into public domain it would have negative impact for all the stakeholders of the company. Conscience: But is more important to find permanent solution to the current solution as truth cannot be hidden for a long time and the situation would be more complicated for everyone to manage if the regulatory bodies unearths the truth. Therefore it is advisable to take charge if current situation and to the right thing even if costs you your job. Narrator: A listens to his inner voice and decides to talk about the matter personally with B, the CEO of the company in presence of other board members to express his concerns about the current mal practices in the business and make them understand about the gravity of the current situation if these practices comes into public knowledge. (After one week on the day of board meeting) A: Good afternoon B, how are you doing today? B: I am good, how are you? How do like working in this organization? Do you like your current position and job? A: I am good and thank you for asking, however, I would like to discuss some important issue related to the financial reporting currently being practiced in our organization. In my four months of work in this organization, I have learned that the financial reports are constantly inflating the profits and other misrepresentations in the financial reporting. These practices are against the International Accounting Standards and are unethical in nature. Further, it is the legal obligation for any business organization to present accurate financial information to its stakeholders as they can access the financial position of the business and make appropriate opinion about the business. B: Well I am aware about the current practices being followed by our organization and in my opinion, it is important to have such practices to attract investors and create a favorable impression about the business among the various stakeholders. A: I am sure you are aware of these unethical practices in the financial reporting but are not fully understand about the implication of such practices. Such practices have benefitted the business in the short run by attracting more investors. However, in the long run these unethical practices are bound to cost company dearly. If the regulatory body discovers these mal practices all the stakeholders of the company would be affected. The investors would refrain from investing money in the business and may pull their association from the company. The pride and self respect of the employees would be adversely affected. Moreover, the company may have to close some of its branches that would result in loss of jobs for the current employees. The brand value in the minds of the customers would deteriorate and loyal customers and clients would shift to our competitors as no one wants to be associated with a company that indulges in unethical business practices. To sum up it can be said that the overall business and reputation of the company would go down and that would be difficult to overcome. In addition, if regulatory bodies discover these unethical business practices, many board members (including A and B) would lose their jobs and would be subjected to legal proceedings. B: Perhaps you are right, so what do you suggest to avoid such situation without affecting the companys relation with its stakeholders and continuing profitable business operations? A: Since, it is the time to present annual financial report for our stakeholders and general public, we can present true financial position of the company profits and solicit greater assistance from the various stakeholders to revitalize the company. Further, the company has all the capabilities to succeed in the market by its own, therefore, it would be more appropriate to focus our resources and energies on improve business competence rather than inflating profits to attract customers. B: Thank you for highlighting the gravity of current unethical accounting practices. We will discuss the problems with other board members to come out with better and transparent financial reporting mechanisms and plan future course of action. References Adams, C. A. (2002). Internal organisational factors influencing corporate social and ethical reporting: Beyond current theorising.Accounting, Auditing Accountability Journal,15(2), 223-250. Adams, C. A. (2004). The ethical, social and environmental reporting-performance portrayal gap.Accounting, Auditing Accountability Journal,17(5), 731-757. Brief, A. P., Dukerich, J. M., Brown, P. R., Brett, J. F. (1996). What's wrong with the Treadway Commission Report? Experimental analyses of the effects of personal values and codes of conduct on fraudulent financial reporting.Journal of Business Ethics,15(2), 183-198. Claypool, G. A., Fetyko, D. F., Pearson, M. A. (1990). Reactions to ethical dilemmas: a study pertaining to certified public accountants.Journal of Business Ethics,9(9), 699-706. D'Aquila, J. M. (1998). Is the control environment related to financial reporting decisions?.Managerial Auditing Journal,13(8), 472-478. Elias, R. Z. (2002). Determinants of earnings management ethics among accountants.Journal of Business Ethics,40(1), 33-45. Langenderfer, H. Q., Rockness, J. W. (2006). Integrating ethics into the accounting curriculum.Accounting Ethics: Theories of accounting ethics and their dissemination,2(1), 346. Low, M., Davey, H., Hooper, K. (2008). Accounting scandals, ethical dilemmas and educational challenges.Critical Perspectives on Accounting,19(2), 222-254. OFallon, M. J., Butterfield, K. D. (2005). A review of the empirical ethical decision-making literature: 19962003.Journal of business ethics,59(4), 375-413. Ponemon, L. A. (1990). Ethical judgments in accounting: A cognitive-developmental perspective.Critical Perspectives on Accounting,1(2), 191-215. Stanga, K. G., Turpen, R. A. (1991). Ethical judgments on selected accounting issues: An empirical study.Journal of Business Ethics,10(10), 739-747. Vyakarnam, S., Bailey, A., Myers, A., Burnett, D. (1997). Towards an understanding of ethical behaviour in small firms.Journal of Business Ethics,16(15), 1625-1636.