Monday, May 25, 2020

Walden By Henry David Thoreau - 843 Words

Everyone sees the world through their own eyes. Not two people can see something in the exact same way or interpret it the same way. They can each have their own opinion about the subject. In â€Å"Walden† by Henry David Thoreau, he has a very individualistic view on nature. In â€Å"Walden†, Thoreau goes out into the woods to try and live his life deliberately. Schneider states, â€Å" In 1845, he received permission from Emerson to use a piece of land that Emerson owned on the shore of Walden Pond.† He stays there for two years trying to learn what it means to live. After he returns home, he publishes his journals, which convey his radical ideas, and they immediately become a bestselling read. In â€Å"Walden† by Henry David Thoreau, there are some key similarities and differences between his view of nature and the view of a contemporary person. One key similarity between Henry David Thoreau in his text â€Å"Walden† and a contemporary person is that both of them have something to learn from nature. From the day humans are born they never stop learning. For example, they are like a constant sponge that just absorbs information from their surroundings. â€Å"While at Walden, Thoreau did an incredible amount of reading and writing, yet he also spent much time sauntering in nature.† says Woodlief. One place on Earth where there is an abundance of information for humans to absorb is nature. Thoreau states on page 383, â€Å"To front only the essential facts of life, and see if I could not learnShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of Walden By Henry David Thoreau997 Words   |  4 PagesWalden, a series of 18 essays by Henry David Thoreau published in 1854, is a record of Thoreau’s experiment in simple living on the northern shore of Walden Pond, Massachusetts. Industrial progress is a theme that Thoreau experienc es while at Walden Pond. Even though Thoreau makes some elaborate claims as to why industrial progress is destructive, the exact opposite is true; as such advancement does much to benefit the relationships, economy and safety of any society. Thoreau’s overall philosophyRead MoreAnalysis Of Walden By Henry David Thoreau1088 Words   |  5 PagesThe excerpt Walden, by Henry David Thoreau, is a piece that explores the purpose of life, especially if it isn t lived to the fullest. Thoreau starts by sharing the meaning and value of life. His idea of his personal achievement was to live life and die with a sense of peace and knowledge that he did not waste a single moment. He wanted to live life while being true to himself regardless of whether he would find life to be cruel or a wonderful place, and this was a risk he was willing to take. InRead MoreWalden by Henry David Thoreau579 Words   |  2 Pagesreflection, Walden, Thoreau states â€Å"be it life or death, we crave only reality.† The excerpt from pages 49 to 50 focuses on the quest for this elusive truth. Serving both as a call to action as well as an instructional guide, this passage takes readers through a cleansing of all the superfluities of life. He laments how life has corrupted the natural state of purity he was born with, but with intellect as his primary tool, he has tried to truly find himself. In this passage, Thoreau instructs hisRead MoreAnalysis Of Henry David Thoreau s Walden 1183 Words   |  5 PagesHenry David Thoreau will go down in history as one of the greatest influential writer’s and philosophers in American history. Not only was he a smart and intelligent man, but he had such wisdom and determination when he looked at every aspect of life. Thoreau was just an ordinary individual from Concord, which helped the readers relate to him on a more personal level when they read his work. In Thoreau’s Walden, he wanted the reader to understand that you should live life more simple, connect withRead MoreCritical Analysis Of Walden By Henry David Thoreau1300 Words   |  6 PagesCritical Analysis of â€Å"Walden† The autobiography â€Å"Walden† by Henry David Thoreau is a first-person narrative explaining what Thoreau personally experienced from his experiment after two years of living at Walden Pond, encompassed by nature. Thoreau isolates himself from society and martial earnings to gain a higher understanding of what it means to have freedom as an individual. He simplifies his life to get closer to nature to learn more about himself and society. If we focus too much on obtainingRead MoreAnalysis Of Henry David Thoreau s Walden861 Words   |  4 Pagesto die tomorrow would you live differently? Henry David Thoreau in an excerpt of his book Walden addresses complex philosophical ideas including death, simplifying everyday life and religion using: carefully chosen, meditative word choice, comparisons and other philosophies and stories intended for the audience of Concord during the 1800’s. Death is uncertain; no one survives to tell of the other side, yet it perpetuates life into existence. Thoreau compares living life to sculpting and that toRead MoreNature Ralph Walden Emerson and Henry David Thoreau Walden1693 Words   |  7 PagesSELDA PUR 2009105153 ‘NATURE’ AND ‘WALDEN’ ‘Nature’ and ‘Walden’ are two art works basically giving the similar messages to the readers. Their writers are different but one of the things which make these works similar is Henry David Thoreau is affected by Ralph Waldo Emerson’s works and ideas very much. Secondly, their essays are both inspired from transcendentalism movement. Finally, their theme are both the same, they deal with mainly the idea of ‘nature’. While comparing these two essays, it isRead MoreAn Example Of Romanticism In Walden, By Henry David Thoreau740 Words   |  3 PagesWithin the passage of Walden, by Henry David Thoreau, it demonstrates multiple examples of Romanticism. The concepts being mentioned are ideas about going transcending ordinary societal beliefs, following ones’ intuition, and creating a new moral law. A main reason why Walden is a representative of Romanticism is because it contains examples of mystery within nature. Thoreau mentions, â€Å"I went to the woods because I wished to live deliberately, to front only the essential facts of life, and seeRead MoreWalden by Henry David Thoreau Essay681 Words   |  3 Pagesthe I, or first person, is omitted; in this it will be retained; that, in respect to egotism†¦Ã¢â‚¬  | 1 | Withdrawal from labor and competition:â€Å"I lived alone, in the woods, a mile from my neighbor, in a house which I had built myself, on the shore of Walden Pond, in Concord.† | 1 | Pursuit of a critical, solitary lifestyle: â€Å"Some have asked me what I got to eat; if I did not feel lonesome; if I was not afraid; and the like.† | 1 | Consciousness of the disproportion between a person’s facilities andRead MoreA Simple Life Philosophy In Walden By David Henry Thoreau996 Words   |  4 PagesWalden author, David Henry Thoreau, has a simple life philosophy and, quite ironically, it is to live a simple life. Thoreau displays his philosophical ideas in his memoir, which he is most known for, Walden. Reading his memoir, we are exposed to his ideas on how one must regard life which is, rather than getting what one wants, but, to disregard what is irrelevant in our lives and to move forward towards our aspirations. Personally, I share similar views due to my constant termination of anything

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Learn About the End of the French Revolution

Almost all historians agree that the French Revolution, that great maelstrom of ideas, politics, and violence, started in 1789 when a gathering of the Estates General turned into a dissolving of the social order and the creation of a new representative body. What they don’t agree on is when the revolution came to an end. While you can find the occasional reference to France still being in the revolutionary era now, most commentators see a difference between the revolution and the imperial rule of Napoleon Bonaparte and the age of wars that bear his name. Which event marks the end of the French Revolution? Take your pick. 1795: The Directory In 1795, with rule by The Terror over, the National Convention designed a new system for governing France. This involved two councils and a ruling body of five directors, known as the Directory. In October 1795, Parisians angry at the state of France, including the idea of the Directory, gathered and marched in protest, but they were repelled by troops guarding strategic areas. This failure was the last time the citizens of Paris appeared able to take charge of the revolution as they had so powerfully done before. It is considered a turning point in the revolution; indeed, some consider it the end. Soon after this, the Directory staged a coup to remove royalists, and their rule for the next four years would be marked by constant vote rigging to stay in power, an action at odds with the dreams of the original revolutionaries. The Directory certainly marked the death of many revolutionary ideals. 1799: The Consulate The military had taken a large role in the changes wrought by the French Revolution before 1799 but never had a general use the army to force change. The Coup of Brumaire, which took place in the later months of 1799, was organized by director and author Sieyà ©s, who decided that the undefeated and feted General Bonaparte would be a tame figure who could use the army to seize power. The coup didn’t run smoothly, but no blood was shed beyond Napoleon’s cheek, and by December 1799 a new government was created. This would be run by three consuls: Napoleon, Sieyà ©s (who had originally wanted Napoleon to be a figurehead and have no power), and a third man called Ducos. The Consulate may be considered the event that marked the end of the French Revolution because it was, technically, a military coup rather than a movement pushed along by the however theoretical will of the people, unlike the earlier revolution. 1802: Napoleon Consul for Life Although power was vested in three consuls, Napoleon soon began to take charge. He won further battles, instituted reforms, started drafting a new series of laws, and raised his influence and profile. In 1802, Sieyà ©s began to criticize the man he had hoped to use as a puppet. The other governmental bodies began to refuse to pass Napoleon’s laws, so he bloodlessly purged them and leveraged his popularity into having himself declared consul for life. This event is sometimes believed to be the end of the revolution because his new position was almost monarchical in its dimensions and certainly represented a break with the careful checks, balances, and elected positions desired by earlier reformers. 1804: Napoleon Becomes Emperor Fresh off more propaganda victories and with his popularity nearly at its zenith, Napoleon Bonaparte crowned himself emperor of France. The French Republic was over and the French empire had begun. This is perhaps the most obvious date to use as the end of the revolution, for although Napoleon had been building his power since the Consulate. France was transformed into a new form of nation and government, one considered almost opposite to the hopes of many revolutionaries. This wasnt simply pure megalomania by Napoleon because he had to work hard to reconcile the conflicting forces of the revolution and establish a degree of peace. He had to get old monarchists working with revolutionaries and try to get everyone working together under him. In many respects he was successful, knowing how to bribe and coerce to unify much of France, and being surprisingly forgiving. Of course, this was partly based on the glory of conquest. It is possible to claim that the revolution came to an end gradually over the Napoleonic era, rather than any single power-grabbing event or date, but this frustrates people who like crisp answers. 1815: The End of the Napoleonic Wars It’s unusual, but not impossible, to find books that include the Napoleonic Wars alongside the revolution  and consider the two part of the same arc. Napoleon had risen through opportunities afforded by the revolution. His fall in first 1814 and then 1815 saw the return of the French monarchy, clearly a national return to pre-revolutionary times, even if France could not return to that era. However, the monarchy did not last long, rendering this a difficult endpoint for the revolution, as others followed soon.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Declaration of Independence and Letter from Birmingham...

Thomas Jefferson and Martin Luther King Jr. are two American men who were key leaders during very controversial periods in U.S. history, and they were instrumental in movements that forever changed American society. Although their generations, cultures, backgrounds, and motives were quite different, their cause was relatively the same. It was a cause that stood against injustice, oppression, and sought the freedom of all men. Their beliefs and struggles were evident in their writings. Two of the most famous writings in particular are Declaration of Independence and Letter from Birmingham Jail. Both writings are very effective and successful in reaching out to their intended audience. However, Letter from Birmingham Jail is more†¦show more content†¦King writing this letter from behind bars. He walked the statement that he makes in the letter that says, I have tried to stand between these two forces, saying that we need emulate neither the do-nothingism of the complacen t nor the hatred and despair of the black nationalist. For there is the more excellent way of love and nonviolent protest. I am grateful to God that, through the influence of the Negro church, the way of nonviolence became an integral part of our struggle (530). Although their cause was the same, their tactics and audience differed. Jefferson was able to use his claim of tyranny against the king, and Dr. King was able to use his humble approach and his comparisons to other men and organizations, to gain a worldwide audience in order to advance their causes. For example, Jefferson was able to rally support from the colonists and sympathy from other countries by placing the blame on King George. Jefferson justified his blame of King George by listing the kings many injustices, as well as the attempts that the colonial leaders made to communicate with King George. Using this tactic Jefferson was able to provoke the tyrant to war, prepare the colonists for war, and eventually gain an alliance with the French who helped them win the war. However, the Declaration was only targeted to the audience that would be critical in helping the colonies gain their independence. For instance, the slaves wereShow MoreRelatedAn Analysis of Letter from a Birmingham Jail Essay1090 Words   |  5 Pages Letter from a Birmingham Jail was written by Doctor Martin Luther King Jr. in April of 1963, as he sat, as the title states, in a Birmingham, Alabama jail. King had been jailed for his participation in a peaceful protest of segregation in public places such as lunch counters and public restrooms (Berkley, 2003). While jailed, King read a criticism of the protest by a group of white ministers, who felt such demonstrations â€Å"directed and in part led by outsiders† were â€Å"unwise and untimely†Read Moreï » ¿An Analysis of Letter from a Birmingham Jail1204 Words   |  5 PagesLetter from Birmingham Jail was written by Martin Luther King Jr. As he states in the title, in a Birmingham, Alabama jail. Martin Luther King Jr. was jailed because he participated on a nonviolent protest of segregation in public places such as lunch counters and public restrooms. During his jail time, Martin Luther King Jr. read a criticism about a protest made by a group of whit e ministers, accusing King of being an outsider, of using extreme measures that incite hatred and violence, that hisRead MoreMartin Luther King Jr s Letter Of Birmingham Jail903 Words   |  4 Pagesliberty across the United States. Martin Luther King Jr’s a â€Å"letter of Birmingham Jail,† and Thomas Jefferson in the Declaration of Independence both advocate the claim for freedom. Both of these historical figures make this apparent by arguing for the protest against tradition, a change across unjust laws, although they differ between the kinds of change to be enforced. Martin Luther King Junior’s a letter from a Birmingham Jail was him expressing his motivation for the protest against traditionRead MoreMoral Responsibility1256 Words   |  6 Pagesjustice for all which is also supported by King’s â€Å"Letter from Birmingham Jail,† Jefferson’s â€Å" The Declaration of Independence,† and Lincoln’s â€Å"Second Inaugural Address.† I am in Birmingham because injustice is here, wrote Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., in his Letter from Birmingham Jail (King 416). Eight Alabama clergymen composed a statement urging restraint in the Civil Rights movement and the discontinuance of demonstrations in Birmingham. The clergymen explained that progress could bestRead MoreThe Declaration Of Independence By Martin Luther King Jr. Essay1334 Words   |  6 Pagesrole as a citizen? The Declaration of Independence explains a citizen’s role as, â€Å"Individual rights refer to the liberties of each individual to pursue life and goals without interference from other individuals or the government.† But what happens when the rights given to us are not protected as stated in the Declaration of Independence? The result is dissatisfaction in our communities which leads to people taking a stand. Martin Luther King Jr.’s Letter from Birmingham jail talks about this problemRead MoreA Cry For Justice By Martin Luther King Jr.1581 Words   |  7 PagesA Cry for Justice The â€Å"Letter from Birmingham Jail,† a brilliant compilation of ethos, logos and pathos. Martin Luther King Jr. executed a monumental movement in the United States. Supporting the minority group, and acting as a voice for the people. King firmly believed in what the declaration of independence had to say about the rights of men all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of HappinessRead MoreRhetorical Analysis Of Martin Luther King Jr.976 Words   |  4 Pagesand â€Å"Letter from a Birmingham Jail† Dr. King used the rhetorical devices of anaphora, allusion, and diction to relay his thoughts of what is right, and also as a way to build a common ground with his audience. Though the rhetorical devices are shared between the two speeches, there are also several differences. The main difference between the two speeches is that in â€Å"I have a Dream† Dr. King is vocalizing his own ideas for what could become of the United States of America. In â€Å"Letter from a BirminghamRead MoreEssay on Analysis of Martin Luther Kings 1219 Words   |  5 Pagesinfluential are the best adjectives to explain Letter from Birmingham Jail. Martin Luther King Jrs astuteness is enhanced by the astonishing capability to show the unkind and heartless attitude against black community. Throughout the whole writing to the eight clergymen Jr. never get too far from the clash for fairness in Birmingham. As head of the South Christians Leadership Conferences (SCLC), Martin L. King, Junior., in the year 1963 acknowledged Birmingham, Alabama, as possibly the most carefullyRead MoreAnalysis Of The Declaration Of Independance, Ain t I A Woman, And Letters From Birmingham Jail1153 Words   |  5 Pagesvoice of a culture is through its literature, essays by american authors like The Declaration of Independance, Ain’t I a Woman, and Letters from Birmingham Jail. One important document from America is the Declaration of Independence. The Declaration of Independance was the thirteen colonies officially breaking their ties with Great Britain. On July 4, 1776, it was adopted by Continental Congress. The Declaration of Independance was the foundation for the American government system and despite theRead MoreSimilarities between Martin Luther Kings Letter from Birmingham Jail and Jonathan Swifts A Modest Proposal1358 Words   |  6 Pagescursory analysis of Letter From Birmingham Jail by Martin Luther King, Jr. and A Modest Proposal by Jonathan Swift reveals glaring differences between the two essays. Surprisingly, a side-by-side comparison also yields many similarities between the two works. The most obvious similarity between the two essays is the overarching theme of the subject matter. In both essays, the writers address deeply-entrenched social injustices. For example, in Letter From Birmingham Jail, King, in his highly-impassioned

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Toshibas Case Unethical Accounting Practices and Ethical Dilemma

Question: Discuss about the Toshibas Case of Unethical Accounting Practices and Ethical Dilemma. Answer: Script Role Play Narrator: In this role-play, we are going to address the problem of unethical accounting practices that is being followed by senior, middle and line management in order to meet the wishes or personal goals of their leaders (CEO) rather than the requirement of the business. in the automotive manufacturing company Toshiba. The protagonist of this case is the accounting director, A. Before joining the company, A has been regarded as ethical person and successful professional. Shorting after joining the company, he identified the Toshibas corporate culture that does not allow anyone to go against the will of their seniors and the unprofessional accounting practices that involve overstating the operating profits. As the company is moving to a new financial year, A has been assigned the task of preparing a financial report. After preparing and sending the finalized financial report to B, the CEO of the company, for approval, A learned that the leaders are not happy with the report as they need it to overstate the operating profits in order to attract investors and build preferable company outlook in front of its stakeholders. A also came to know through the internal surveys and from other employees that there is no choice but to follow the instructions of seniors. These learning about the corporate culture and inappropriate accounting practices and the internal convictions of A and moral and ethical values have presented an ethical dilemma for A and he is unable to find the right path to follow as there are many factors or stakeholders who would be affected by the decision taken by A. There are several questions that A is seeking answer to and is questioning his conscience to find out the best way out if the situation. Following are the excerpts that the A had with his conscience in the process of getting the right path to follow. Conscience The accounting practice of deliberately inflating the operating profits to satisfy the hidden agenda of seniors is not appropriate, as it is not beneficial for the organization in the end. Is it not important to follow International Accounting Standards (IAS) and maintain transparency in financial reporting? A: But that should not be my concern as the I my job is only to serve the company and the employers rather than investing time in matters that are beyond the purview of current job profile. In addition, the corporate culture of the company does not allow to question the orders of seniors and it cannot be changed overnight. The current financial reporting systems is in practice in the organization for a long time and is devised by the superiors and they must be fully aware of the consequences of their actions. Conscience: You are the accounting director of the company and it is your responsibility to take charge of the activities of the business concerning accounting and financial activities. A: Since I am a newly appointed accounting director, it is important to get accustomed with the new organizational culture, as every employee in the organization is aware of the current practices. In addition, the previous accounting director lost his job as he refused to fulfill the requirements of his superiors. For me it is more important to save my job and create a favorable impression in front of the superiors. Further, the current opportunity is huge and it would be more crucial for my personal career development. Conscience: It is not about your personal goals or career development opportunities but about the various stakeholders that are affected by the misrepresentation of financial data and over stating of operating profits. For instance, the shareholders who are investing in the company have a legitimate right to know about the actual condition of the business to make a decision about their investments. A: I truly understand the importance of transparency in the financial reporting as it enables the various stakeholders to have better assessment of the business and take pride in their association with the business. However, if the current mal practices of the company come to the surface in the public domain it can have serious ramification for the business and various stakeholders. For instance, the self-respect and pride of the current employees would be violated and it is possible that the government would take legal action against the companys management and the company may be locked down that would result in employees losing their jobs and this not the ideal scenario. In addition, the customer loyalty towards the brand and goodwill of the company in the market would be severely damaged. Further, Toshiba is a well reputed business organization and contributes positively in the development of the society and a source of revenue generation for the business, therefore, if the curren t unethical practices comes into public domain it would have negative impact for all the stakeholders of the company. Conscience: But is more important to find permanent solution to the current solution as truth cannot be hidden for a long time and the situation would be more complicated for everyone to manage if the regulatory bodies unearths the truth. Therefore it is advisable to take charge if current situation and to the right thing even if costs you your job. Narrator: A listens to his inner voice and decides to talk about the matter personally with B, the CEO of the company in presence of other board members to express his concerns about the current mal practices in the business and make them understand about the gravity of the current situation if these practices comes into public knowledge. (After one week on the day of board meeting) A: Good afternoon B, how are you doing today? B: I am good, how are you? How do like working in this organization? Do you like your current position and job? A: I am good and thank you for asking, however, I would like to discuss some important issue related to the financial reporting currently being practiced in our organization. In my four months of work in this organization, I have learned that the financial reports are constantly inflating the profits and other misrepresentations in the financial reporting. These practices are against the International Accounting Standards and are unethical in nature. Further, it is the legal obligation for any business organization to present accurate financial information to its stakeholders as they can access the financial position of the business and make appropriate opinion about the business. B: Well I am aware about the current practices being followed by our organization and in my opinion, it is important to have such practices to attract investors and create a favorable impression about the business among the various stakeholders. A: I am sure you are aware of these unethical practices in the financial reporting but are not fully understand about the implication of such practices. Such practices have benefitted the business in the short run by attracting more investors. However, in the long run these unethical practices are bound to cost company dearly. If the regulatory body discovers these mal practices all the stakeholders of the company would be affected. The investors would refrain from investing money in the business and may pull their association from the company. The pride and self respect of the employees would be adversely affected. Moreover, the company may have to close some of its branches that would result in loss of jobs for the current employees. The brand value in the minds of the customers would deteriorate and loyal customers and clients would shift to our competitors as no one wants to be associated with a company that indulges in unethical business practices. To sum up it can be said that the overall business and reputation of the company would go down and that would be difficult to overcome. In addition, if regulatory bodies discover these unethical business practices, many board members (including A and B) would lose their jobs and would be subjected to legal proceedings. B: Perhaps you are right, so what do you suggest to avoid such situation without affecting the companys relation with its stakeholders and continuing profitable business operations? A: Since, it is the time to present annual financial report for our stakeholders and general public, we can present true financial position of the company profits and solicit greater assistance from the various stakeholders to revitalize the company. Further, the company has all the capabilities to succeed in the market by its own, therefore, it would be more appropriate to focus our resources and energies on improve business competence rather than inflating profits to attract customers. B: Thank you for highlighting the gravity of current unethical accounting practices. We will discuss the problems with other board members to come out with better and transparent financial reporting mechanisms and plan future course of action. References Adams, C. A. (2002). Internal organisational factors influencing corporate social and ethical reporting: Beyond current theorising.Accounting, Auditing Accountability Journal,15(2), 223-250. Adams, C. A. (2004). The ethical, social and environmental reporting-performance portrayal gap.Accounting, Auditing Accountability Journal,17(5), 731-757. Brief, A. P., Dukerich, J. M., Brown, P. R., Brett, J. F. (1996). What's wrong with the Treadway Commission Report? Experimental analyses of the effects of personal values and codes of conduct on fraudulent financial reporting.Journal of Business Ethics,15(2), 183-198. Claypool, G. A., Fetyko, D. F., Pearson, M. A. (1990). Reactions to ethical dilemmas: a study pertaining to certified public accountants.Journal of Business Ethics,9(9), 699-706. D'Aquila, J. M. (1998). Is the control environment related to financial reporting decisions?.Managerial Auditing Journal,13(8), 472-478. Elias, R. Z. (2002). Determinants of earnings management ethics among accountants.Journal of Business Ethics,40(1), 33-45. Langenderfer, H. Q., Rockness, J. W. (2006). Integrating ethics into the accounting curriculum.Accounting Ethics: Theories of accounting ethics and their dissemination,2(1), 346. Low, M., Davey, H., Hooper, K. (2008). Accounting scandals, ethical dilemmas and educational challenges.Critical Perspectives on Accounting,19(2), 222-254. OFallon, M. J., Butterfield, K. D. (2005). A review of the empirical ethical decision-making literature: 19962003.Journal of business ethics,59(4), 375-413. Ponemon, L. A. (1990). Ethical judgments in accounting: A cognitive-developmental perspective.Critical Perspectives on Accounting,1(2), 191-215. Stanga, K. G., Turpen, R. A. (1991). Ethical judgments on selected accounting issues: An empirical study.Journal of Business Ethics,10(10), 739-747. Vyakarnam, S., Bailey, A., Myers, A., Burnett, D. (1997). Towards an understanding of ethical behaviour in small firms.Journal of Business Ethics,16(15), 1625-1636.

Saturday, April 11, 2020

Miscegenation free essay sample

As an African-American child growing up in a single-mother household, in a predominately white neighborhood, it was important to my family that they lay a foundation of cultural pride for me. My mother and grandmother (whom lived with us) were very subtle in providing this education through codes in the form of Afro-American cultural phenomena of their respective eras (from James Brown to Roots the television mini-series starring Alex Haley). The other woman whom I contribute my raising was my Aunt, born, raised, and living in a black neighborhood—whose biggest fear was that I grow up to marry a white woman. She instilled in me a miscegenetic ideology through less subtle means. Her favorite catchphrase was â€Å"if she can’t use your comb, then don’t bring her home. † This poetically prejudice statement is a reference to the different textures of black hair, which has more body (versus other ethnicities—particularly white) and generally requires a bristled brush. We will write a custom essay sample on Miscegenation or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Thus, my aunt was saying that I should only bring home someone with the same physical ethnic features as me (aka a black women). My Mom and aunt were born in the early 60’s in the midst of the Civil Rights Movement. The 60’s were a time when the term â€Å"miscegenation† was on the tip of everyone’s tongue as it was controversially ruled â€Å"unconstitutional† by The Supreme Court in 1967. I wondered if growing up in this era shaped my Mom and Aunt’s view of black and white relations. In that era, was mixed marriage a matter of pride or prejudice? In exploring this question I chose to perform an analysis of trends related to interracial relations and miscegenation (pre-abolishment) through the New York Times. Comparing and contrasting a period of time well before the Civil Rights Movement (1908-1913) and one well within the Civil Rights Movement (1960-1965) provides fascinating insight on the influences and development of race theory in the United States, particularly in the use of racial propaganda, dueling racial paradigms, and the impact of social conditions on the church’s stance. One of the most blaring trends in both eras is the use of propaganda to introduce provocative perspective on mixed race relations. The most popular medium for such perspective was the theatre. In 1913, theatre critic William Winter made headlines for denouncing the â€Å"new theatre† which incorporated such taboo subjects as homosexuality, adultery, and religion. In this article, Winter points out the â€Å"degeneracy† of every current play grappling with what he considers â€Å"vile ideas disguised as dramatic art†, which ends up being quite the lengthy blacklist. Winter saves his most scathing criticisms for the play â€Å"The Nigger† of which he describes as â€Å"crude, pointless, tainted†¦a tissue of impertinent prattle about the terrible subject of miscegenation. Winter becomes most offended by an interracial relationship that he leaves the reader to assume has him all â€Å"hot and bothered. † He describes the relationship as â€Å"the struggle between ‘nigger’ and white woman† and calls it â€Å"one of the most revolting scenes that have been acted on any stage or before any audience. † Ironically, there are no brown people in this play. Winter lashes out at the mere allusion of an interracial relationship. The plot revolves around a Southern aristocrat who is encouraged to run for governor by another political figure. During the aristocrat’s tenure he signs a bill that puts the latter mentioned political figure out of business who then retaliates with allegations that the governor has â€Å"negro ancestry† which forces him to resign and leave his girlfriend, to her devastation. By 1964, theatre was the sole means of propaganda ushered in by World War II and the Cold War. Cultural commentary on interracial romance was no longer subtlety. Gone were the days of allusions of mixed relations among all-white casts. As indicated by journalist Lewis Funke, certain African-American actors and actresses became brown poster-children of cross-cultural popularity. This popularity became a platform for the palatability of anti-miscegenation to both white and Afro-American audiences. Though strides had been made with actors like Sammy Davis Jr. and James Earl Jones, lesser known actors and actresses awoke the sting of reality: the dominant southern white-supremist ideology. Funke uses Paula Wayne as an example, stating that her appearance in â€Å"Golden Boy† â€Å"opposite a negro† hasn’t been â€Å"without percussions† and resulted in hate mail laced with obscene language. Given the strides American theatre made with pieces that questioned the color line of love, it was the silver screen’s turn. Also in 1964, director Larry Peerce created the interracial drama â€Å"One Potato, Two Potato† about a â€Å"negro† who marries a white woman with a white daughter from a previous marriage. This film was celebrated as â€Å"groundbreaking† for daring to depict the â€Å"traumatic effects of interracial marriage† and doing so with â€Å"fine taste†¦and artistry†Ã¢â‚¬â€a little too much taste and artistry. Weiler goes on to scorn the film for being unrealistic, seeming to contrive bigotry through the wife’s first husband coming back to the US from South America for custody of their daughter and succeeds. Though film was a critical tool in promoting anti-miscegenation, it wouldn’t exist without a propaganda movement that was so potent and instrumental that it attracted media attention all over the nation for years. The Cosmopolitan Society of Greater New York was developed in about 1906 under the premise of getting like-minded whites and African-Americans together to discuss solutions to the race problem in the US. In 1908, the society decided to hold a dinner forum for the purposes of â€Å"exchanging ideas on how best to help forward the colored people. The dinner was comprised of African-American and white guests and society members. The forum boasted speeches from scholars to clergymen on the topics of racial equality and interracial marriage. Though a journalist or passionate citizen eventually referenced most of the speeches, it was Hamilton Holt whose words elicited an immediate and overwhelming response. In his speech, Holt spoke of four ways to deal with the race problem in America: extermination, deportation, assimilation, and education. He went on to remark that extermination and deportation were not options, but wasn’t so quick to denounce assimilation. He stated that, â€Å"[intermarriage] if between white men and colored women and not between colored men and white women, would bleach the race. † He went on to claim that he â€Å"rejected it as a proper solution† but he entertained it as a solution nonetheless. Intentional or not, his entertaining of the idea of assimilation became the foundation for national media reaction and the unofficial theme of the entire event. The heated reactions to the dinner forum were just as diverse as the crowed that attended. The first response set the tone and dubbed the forum the â€Å"black and white dinner. † The article compared African-Americans to a contagious disease whose germs surely infected the whites they ate with. Furthermore, the writer viewed the event as a â€Å"socialist† waste of time. Another standout editorial came from Virginia’s Richmond Times-Dispatch calling the event â€Å"folly and degradation of a lot of soft-headed visionaries and socialistic diletantes. Maryland’s Baltimore Sun called the event â€Å"demoralizing and dangerous†¦and compels more serious consideration of the subject [social equality and mixed marriages] than might otherwise be necessary. † The most compelling of the responses came from a perspective different from the typical early 20th century fear of socialism and social order. It was from the perspective of an African-American woman in a letter to the editor. In her letter she expressed her gross opposition to the dinner and the speeches for their promotion of interracial marriage. She viewed interracial marriage as an attack on African-American cultural pride, stating, I consider an insult has been offered to every thinking woman of my race who has the good and betterment of her people at heart†¦I maintain that every true negro wishes not to have a bleached race but to have a race of black and women, who will vindicate their own manhood and womanhood and work out their own salvation Assimilation wasn’t an outrageous view of the time. A few years later, an African-American anthropologist from Clark University in Atlanta, Georgia, made the New York Times for his support of African-American â€Å"bleaching. He found it â€Å"absurd† that so much of society revolves around the â€Å"perpetual segregation of the negro† when humans were meant to evolve into one single human race. He goes on to call biracial people as â€Å"the gift to human civilization. † The anthropologist is a clear example of racial paradigm of the early 20th century viewing race as a scientific construct. The whole concept of the assimilation of the African-American plays into the idea of the US melting pot metaphor used later in globalization propaganda that was popular at the time. The metaphor references the concept that the United States is a fusion of diversity: different nationalities, cultures, and ethnicities. With the fusion of all of these identifiers it creates platform for the scientists to define race by genetics. One author of a New York Times article felt so strongly about the link between science and race that it was suggested that no â€Å"negro† be allowed to marry a white person without a State Eugenics Board Certificate, but only if the non-white party is less than half and â€Å"not less than 1/8 part negro blood. Such complicated measures of defining race by ratios only caused paranoia of accidentally getting involved with someone of another race. One humorous announcement on the front page of the New York Times reinforced that paranoia with a column entitled â€Å"Not Afraid of Negro Taint. † The blurb highlighted the engagement of Blanche Clamorgan, a white woman to a white car dealer, despite her sister being sued for an annulment of her marriage to her husband on the  grounds that she is â€Å"tainted† with â€Å"negro† ancestry. There was strong opposition to the science theory of race. One letter to the editor discredited the Clark University professor claiming a lack of scientific support for the evolution argument and reminds readers that an anthropologist is not a scientist. He also discredited the professor for his lack of experience, claiming that he can’t accurately be an authority for the race problem born and raised â€Å"free† being from Mas sachusetts. He closes his comments indicating the significance of skin tone within defining race, â€Å"the ‘black nigger’ is proud of his color and holds the ‘yellow nigger’ in contempt. †The writer’s opinion becomes more popular by the 1960’s indicating the start of a paradigm shift from race as a scientific construct towards race as a sociological construct. A lot of articles were appearing that highlight the harsh societal realities of skin color. Stories told are founded on the fact that race prospers by the society that perpetuates it, not so much by science. Racial intermarriage laws were a popular example of this in the 60’s, and how some states, such as Florida, focus on cohabitation for fear of by not doing so the state government was promoting â€Å"’negro-white’ intermarriage. † Further support for the developing social construct of race can be seen in the sociological theory that â€Å"white guilt† and â€Å"negro revenge are at the center of interracial problems. These numerous cultural barriers left some African-Americans feeling like colorblind love isn’t worth the hassle. A poll was taken in the mid-1960’s that surveyed 729 African-American families and 839 white families about miscegenation. The poll concluded that no African-American participants would encourage their child to marry white, and even then, only have of them would tolerate it. Though interracial marriage seemed to be on the decline everywhere else, the complete opposite was happening in New York. The New York Times dedicated an entire front page spread to interracial couples whose marriages have stood the test of time. In much of the article, couples spoke about the rise of subtle discrimination from both whites and African-Americans, and how color plays a defining role in their marriages. One couple speaks of the â€Å"theory of skin tone† stating that, â€Å"strangers both ‘negro’ and white almost actively seek a reason not to be prejudiced against interracial couples†¦sometimes†¦there is reason enough if the negro partner’s skin is light or†¦exceedingly well-dressed. † Skin color even becomes a variable when seeking a marriage at the Municipal Building. In order to obtain the license the each couple must identify themselves as a color. The color options are black, brown, yellow, white, and red. One must interestingly note that three months prior to the article written highlighting interracial couples, another one written announcing the US Air Force’s indefinite suspension of an identical color system troops were forced to use to identify spouses prior to deployment. Marriage licenses were also a significant topic of discourse in the early 20th century. One could find several announcements involving interracial couples gaining and being denied marriage licenses between the years of 1908 and 1913. There was one that stood out from May of 1908 involving a â€Å"colored† student from Jamaica and a â€Å"white girl† obtaining a marriage license. It went on to describe how both the groom and bride-to-be were â€Å"devout Catholics. † A Catholic Bishop was asked to make a statement, which included, â€Å"the church had no power to refuse to countenance a marriage between a â€Å"negro† and a white woman. † Unfortunately for many other religions, it isn’t so simple. The idea of shifting religious observances with the ever-turbulent social conditions of the United States can be an uphill battle. Congregations and religious leaders often have to pressure the folks in power, meaning one has to go through a time consuming chain of command before making any progress. The bright side of the latter is that it periodically resulted in clever manifestations of artistic demonstration, like the New Brady play of 1912 about mixed marriage from a Jewish perspective. The uphill battle of religion and interracial marriage remained true in the 1960’s. Though Catholics continued to â€Å"walk the talk† and be examples to other churches and religions, others continued to struggle through politics and due process.

Tuesday, March 10, 2020

Nike Marketing Strategy A Guide to Selling Benefits and Not Products

Nike Marketing Strategy A Guide to Selling Benefits and Not Products We all think we know the classic Nike marketing strategy. Just do it comes to mind pretty quickly, as do Air Jordan sneakers, famous athlete endorsements, and the swoosh logo. But is that really all there is to what Nike is doing? Or, is there something deeper behind their strategy and tactics? The Nike marketing strategy that most of us recognize isnt the one that made them famous, at least not in the early days. Discovering the Nike marketing strategy that put them on the map is where the gold is. Furthermore, just like any true content marketing strategy, it  isnt really much of a strategy at all. Like many similar success stories, it was as simple as providing real customer value.How To Follow Nike's Marketing Strategy Secrets For Success via @garrett_moonThe First Nike Marketing Strategy Bill Bowerman was a track and field coach, as well as one of the co-founders of Nike. In the mid-1970's, he began experimenting with his wife's waffle maker to design a better tread for running shoes. As the story goes, he ruined the waffle maker but invented a brand new type of shoe. Get Organized And Save Time With This Free Course! Work efficiently, stay organized, publish compelling content, and schedule everything for maximum growth. Sign up now for this comprehensive marketing course. At the end of the course, you'll have a well-thought-out marketing strategy of your own. Time's limited! Get Started Now For Free He later used that design to create the first Nike shoe commonly referred to as the "Nike Moon shoe." It was the first step of many that put Nike on the map, but there is more to the story than just a great tread- wear design and a waffle maker. There's also the story of Nike's incredible, if not accidental and seemingly counterintuitive, approach to promoting their product. Bowerman, you see, is also credited as the man who brought about the jogging craze that swept America in the late 1960's and 70's. While you would think that jogging wasn’t something that needed to be invented, it wasn’t all that popular as an exercise or activity at that time. Bill’s work and research truly brought jogging out of obscurity and to the forefront of the minds of the public. After observing a jogging club in New Zealand, Bill began to understand the value of jogging as a traditional fitness routine. Bill immediately began writing articles and books about jogging and how it could be used as part of a fitness program. His first three-page pamphlet was called the Jogger’s Manual and was later expanded into a 90-page book (see below) that he wrote along with an experienced cardiologist. Jogging, the accidental content marketing showpiece by Nike founder Bill Bowerman. Along with Bill's other involvements with professional athletes, his work helped inspire the 1970's running boom that Nike clearly benefitted from. Was this the result  of a strong  marketing strategy? Or was it just a coincidence? The answer is probably a mix of   both. It would be really great to point to Bowerman's story as a case-in-point example of content marketing at its finest, but it is difficult to do. The book was technically released before the first pair of shoes, and even before he invented the waffle tread. So, if it wasn't true content marketing, what was it and  how did it even work? 1. Put Customer Interests First Customers like great products  and they like serious benefits. For them, things that benefit them personally are easy to justify. The Nike Moon shoes did this, but only because the customer was beginning to understand jogging and its benefits for their health. Bill's secret goal wasn't to sell shoes, he was simply promoting something that he believed in. This may not sound like marketing strategy, but it certainly should. 2. Base Your Strategy On A Felt Need Initially for Nike's audience, the felt need wasn't for better running shoes, but for a better way to get in shape. Certainly, running was already popular among kids and athletes in the 1970's, but it wasn't the widespread social activity that we see it as today. The growing white-collar workforce helped pave the way for social activities that included the promotion of cardiovascular health. Once the trend was ingrained, the need shifted and the "jogging shoes" themselves became the felt need. Want to increase product demand? Identify your audience's felt needs first. #marketing3. Believe In the Product You Are Selling It's unlikely that Bowerman's original goal was to become a millionaire as he penned the pages of his first jogging pamphlet. That wasn't why he did what he did. His only goal was to promote a sport and an idea that he believed in. As marketers, shouldn't we believe in the product and the ideas we are selling? For Bowerman, it sure made marketing a lot easier. He was "marketing" without even realizing what he was up to. 4. Sell Easily Identifiable Benefits Instead Of The Product While jogging is pretty easy to understand, the waffle tread isn't (at least not until you understand why Bowerman made it in the first place). His goal was to make the world's most light–weight running shoe. He believed that this factor alone could dramatically improve the speed of a distance runner. His product worked  and quickly gained the industry respect that it deserved. How Nike’s Marketing Strategy Evolved As the marketing landscape has changed since the 70s, so has the Nike marketing strategy. In fact, it’s remarkable how well the brand has adapted its approach to new trends and technologies without losing the core of their identity or brand voice. It’s key to understand that while their general aesthetic and tactics have changed with the times, their customer–centric messaging has remained consistent. 1. Embrace New Technologies While Nike's early marketing strategy centered on print publications, they later went on to dominate other mediums, like television in the 80s and 90s, through modern social media platforms today. 2. Adapt  To The Needs Of Your Audience Nike hasn’t historically adopted new communication platforms for their marketing just because they’re chasing new, flashy objects. Far from it. Rather, they’ve been quick to conquer new mediums because they’re where their customers are. For example, take a look at their Instagram profile. They know their core demographic includes heavy Instagram users and so it makes sense for their brand to maintain a presence there. However, they also make sure that everything they post provides value. Rather than interrupting the flow of their follower’s feeds with flagrant sales pitches, they share motivational messaging. View this post on Instagram 04:40:08. â  â‚¬Ã¢  â‚¬Ã¢  â‚¬ â  â‚¬ 280 minutes. Thats the amount of time it took @nani183 to not only prove that she was a runner, but to prove that she was a marathon runner. â  â‚¬Ã¢  â‚¬Ã¢  â‚¬ â  â‚¬ Hours after the winner had crossed the finish line, the first timer found victory in defeat. It didnt matter how daunting the distance was. She didnt care if she finished 4th or 4,000th forward. She just wanted to finish. â  â‚¬Ã¢  â‚¬Ã¢  â‚¬ â  â‚¬ Hanin told us, To be successful, you mustnt give up. Only giving up is failure. #NRC A post shared by nike (@nike) on Oct 6, 2015 at 11:01am PDT Other posts, like this one, subtly tie into the brand’s history while directing users to interest–specific Nike sub-accounts on Instagram. In this case, they could have simply said something to the effect of, â€Å"Check out our women’s footwear and apparel profile, and our general  running product profile." Instead, they went the extra mile and created something memorable and entertaining while staying relevant to what their audience wants to see. View this post on Instagram How to run your Fastest Mile: Step 1: Wake up hungry. Step 2: @nikewomen Step 3: @nikerunning Stay up to speed at nike.com/findyourfast. A post shared by nike (@nike) on Aug 30, 2015 at 2:07am PDT 3. Stay True To Your Sense Of Purpose They say the more things change, the more they stay the same. For Nike, that has certainly remained true. Throughout their current content marketing initiatives, Nike makes sure their brand message hasn’t gotten lost over time or across channels. They focus their emphasis on creating content that promotes the benefits of their products, rather than the features. Helping their customers be better at what they love to do is still the focus of their branding and message. By moving their content marketing to the platforms where their customers are it shows that they are keeping their audience’s needs in mind while staying true to themselves. Nike's marketing strategy has succeeded in sustaining a global brand while many of their competitors have come and gone from the spotlight. Go where your audience is. Help solve their problems. Stay true to your brand. #contentmarketingHow To Apply The Nike Marketing Strategy To Your Own Brand The history of Nike’s marketing strategy is interesting in itself. What you probably want to know at this point is how to apply these lessons to your own work. 1. Figure Out The Needs Of Your Audience Your audience is on the Internet because they’re looking for answers to questions. One way to position your brand or blog as an authority on your topic or market is to create compelling content that addresses those concerns. Doing this well means understanding exactly what your audience’s goals are and what they want to know, and then being there to answer and give solutions when they need them. Do this well enough, and you might even turn readers into passionate brand advocates. In Nike’s case, people were looking for new ways to stay in shape. As jogging became more popular, people needed jogging shoes. Nike then smartly positioned themselves not just as a company that made shoes, but a company that helped their customers achieve their fitness goals (and just happened to make shoes that supported that goal). If you’re unsure what your audience is really looking for, try putting yourself in their shoes for a moment (no pun intended) and think beyond the scope of your product or service. Instead of thinking about your product’s features or competitive advantages, think about what goal your customer is trying to achieve. Then, be there with the information, products, and services they need to make it happen. What goal is your customer trying to achieve? Now make content, gather information, and create products that will help your customers achieve their goals. This means you need to do your research first: Recommended Reading: How To Do Content Marketing Research For A Blog Post 6 Simple Tips For Using Online Research In Your Content Marketing 2. Figure Out The Best Way To Reach Your Audience In terms of your blog and overall digital marketing efforts, this means that you need to figure out where your audience hangs out on the Web and how you can best reach them there. Which social networks are they most active on? Should you pay to promote your content on those networks? Does an email newsletter make sense for your customers? Could print collateral be something they’re interested in? These are big questions to answer, but the key point to remember is that its important to go where your audience is. Before considering any content distribution tactic, think about your customer’s habits, what types of content they prefer, and where they prefer to find it. Make sure you're thorough in your approach  when it comes to doing everything you can to spread your content. After all, if you're  going to try to market like Nike, then you can't afford to settle for the status quo. Recommended Reading: The 6 Types Of Social Media Content That Will Give You The Greatest Value What 10 Studies Say About The Best Times To Post On Social Media How To Make Writing For Social Media Work For Your Business 3. Create Compelling Content That Addresses Audience Needs Whether it’s on your blog, social media channels, video platforms, or print collateral, every piece of content you create should address customer needs. Not only that, but you need to be creating the best content on your topic anywhere on the Web. If you’re not answering questions, solving problems, being entertaining, or otherwise helping your audience be better at doing what they love, then it’s time to rethink your approach. If you’re unsure of what your customer’s real needs are, consider everything from simple keyword research to surveys to get a better idea of what kind of content you can create that they’ll find valuable. You'll also want to consider what content creation budget and resources you have available. Key Takeaways About Nike’s Marketing Strategy To Grow Your Brand If this all seems like a lot of information to take in, that's because it is.  If there's just one thing you remember from this post, however, it's the idea of creating content that spreads, instead of content that just sells. The Benefits Of Not Selling Here's the cool thing: Bill didn't sell shoes; he didn't need to. Instead, he sold jogging and all of the benefits that came with it. This should make us pause as marketers. Instead of selling our products we should be selling the benefits that products like ours promote. Running shoes matter to people who jog, so selling them on jogging is always a good first step. The same goes for us here at . We are a content marketing and planning tool. The more people that use content to market their business, the more copies of our software we sell. We also gain the added benefit of understanding why our customers buy what we are selling in the first place. Even in the world of content marketing, there is a lot of selling. This is fine, but it misses the real point that Bowerman so aptly understood–spread ideas, not products. Spread ideas, not products. #contentmarketing #bloggingGood Content Marketing Doesn't Sell, It Spreads Content marketing is growing, and that usually brings fuzzy definitions that blur the lines between what something actually is and what it is becoming. It's often pegged as a process rather than a technique, but content marketing doesn't depend on a specific set of tools or a common workflow. It is about providing value and building trust with customers. Bowerman's book built trust and provided immense value–a trait that naturally carried over to his products. He didn't intend for the book to be used as content marketing, but because, with content, the lines between value and marketing are so blurry, marketing is exactly what he did. Strategy is great. Using keywords is smart. Blogging is the future. But providing customers value, no matter the medium, will never go out of style.

Saturday, February 22, 2020

Foster Youth and why they are not succeeding in their Education- Research Paper

Foster Youth and why they are not succeeding in their Education- - Research Paper Example For practically all young individuals, the finale of adolescent life means becoming a part of the employment world, vocational preparation, or post-secondary education. But many are neither in school nor at work, especially among foster youth. A large number of children presently in foster care in the United States are among the highly vulnerable youth in the country (Whiting, 2000). Studies reveal that adults who were previously foster children are more prone to experience low quality of life compared to the mainstream population (Staub & Meighan, n.d.). Thus foster youth are more at-risk of becoming involved in criminal activities, homeless, or reliant on welfare services (Courtney et al., 2010). This paper analyzes the academic performance of youth in foster care and the causes of the observed low educational attainment of these foster youth. Human capital is obviously necessary for success during the passage toward adulthood, yet researchers on previous foster youth discover low academic performance and that they perform poorly in comparison to the general population. Besides proving that previous foster youth have a lower level of educational achievement, most researchers report that they are less able to finish high school or pass the General Education Development (GED) exam (Zeitlin, Weinberg, & Kimm, 2004). Foster youth confront numerous difficulties or challenges throughout their lives. There are an approximated 500,000 foster care children in the U.S. (Finkelstein, Wamsley, & Miranda, 2002, 1). A large number of them have experienced maltreatment and other ordeals both prior to and after they were transferred to foster care, and numerous have particular social, emotional, and medical needs. However, of all the problems foster youth encounter, poor academic performance could have the most severe impact on their liv es. For youth in long-term foster care, a serious problem is the tough transition from